Author Archives: Gene Overton

The In And Out Of Rain Screens

All of us have heard of rain screens and how they are helpful in protecting your house from damage due to the rain. The entire system forms a dual protection for the wall of your building. Additional insulation is also recommended. Architectural facades, for instance, can work wonders – but you need to know where and how to use them.

The Air Blanket

The first line of defense that the rain screen offers is the sheet of air over the wall. This is created by a couple of methods. The ventilation needs to be maintained with extra care when there are windows and wall penetrations as a part of your building.

A double layer of outer and inner sections makes sure that the air insulation is kept all around. The outer layer keeps the rain out and the inner layer forms thermal insulation. This ensures that the frame of the building is dry.

Furring is one way to create this air blanket. This is done using vertical battens or strapping. The openings made on the bottom and the top of the wall thus the rise of air happens naturally.

The rain screen forms a layer of air over the surface of the wall, so that the water does not come in direct contact with it. The additional layer of insulation is needed because of sometimes, there is a possibility of some amount of moisture coming in contact with the wall. This can cause the growth of mold on your walls.

Getting Rid Of The Water

The water is the reason why so much damage comes to buildings during monsoon. It penetrates into the material and creates a path for other elements to start affecting the building as well.

The drainage system is designed in a way that even the heaviest flow of rainwater can be directed outward and away from the walls of the building. A special drip edge called flashing directs the water away from the edge. During intense rains with high wind velocities a minute amount of rain may penetrate through the air insulation system and reach the cladding.

However, the water resistant nature of the cladding ensures that these droplets move towards the ground due to gravity and surface tension.

The pipe system has to be quick efficient and long lasting. Water, when unfriendly is a very destructive force. It is the nourishment that other degrading components need to take root on a surface. Thus, the maximum amount of water needs to be gotten rid of.

Care needs to be taken during installation so that the drainage plane stays rigid and is not susceptible to compression as this will affect the air blanket.

How Do You Go About It?

You will need a good terracotta rainscreen to help you. This is why you need to make sure that your rain screens are installed by experienced people. Find the best of the best like Argeton Terracotta in Telling along with a wide range of selection for you to choose from.

From the past to the nowadays: clinical negligence in the history of mankind

The responsibility of doctors for errors and omissions in various historical periods was different and depended on social justice, religious beliefs, moral and ethical standards and the level of development of medical science.

In ancient times healing was equated to the action of supernatural power. There was the absolute responsibility on the healer for the patient’s death. The code of laws of the Babylonian king Hammurabi (1792-1750 BC) indicated various measures of responsibilities the doctors took. For example, when a slaveholder was harmed by the doctor, the healer’s hand was cut off (sometimes a healer was even deprived of life); a failed treatment of a medical servant was obliged to compensate the owner of its value or to give another slave. In Egypt, doctors should have been conducting their business strictly in accordance of the notes and regulations of the Holy Book. If the doctor treated a patient in full accordance with this set of rules, he was free from liability, even in the case of death of the patient.

Rome Law was punishing doctors for blunders. The concept of ‘medical error in Roman law included inexperience, carelessness and lack of medical care. However, Roman law considered the possibility of death of the patient as a result of severe disease. For killing people, selling of poisonous concentrations to poison people, for an abortion and castration doctors were punished in the same way as any other citizens. Differentiation of intent and errors were gradually reflected in the legislation of all the European countries, although the legal responsibility of doctors in different states dared differently.

In ancient Greece, the medical art was appreciated, and the doctor’s credibility was high. Slaveholders and rich merchants received the necessary services from itinerant physicians. The slaves and the poor were actually deprived of medical care. The doctor was freed from the punishment, if the patient died through no fault of the doctor.

Nowadays, despite the fact that the concepts of medical errors and negligence are quite blurred from a legal standpoint, the state of affairs has changed. Yes, the  UK budget spendings on cases associated with clinical negligence account for £780ml. annually, and according to, a prominent legal startup, running a comprehensive database of medical negligence solicitors, the number of clinical negligence cases is slowly increasing, the draconian measures are not there.

Currently, there are two main error groups:

  1. Medical error – an accident in which a doctor violates the rules of science or medical practices in such circumstances that he could not and should not have foreseen the consequences of his actions. This error could be due to lack of facilities and equipment, the difficult situation in which the acting physician finds himself, and other circumstances, lying outside the doctor’s will.
  2. Negligence error – careless healing, when the doctor did not foresee the dangerous outcome, though, he should have known of harmful effects, as a result of violation of rules or methods of medical science. In this case a doctor could have foreseen the problem, but he thoughtlessly hoped to prevent the consequences of his actions.